Tears normally drain from the eye through small tubes called tear ducts, which stretch from the eye into the nose. If a tear duct becomes blocked or fails to open, tears cannot drain from the eye properly. The duct may fill with fluid and become swollen, inflamed, and sometimes infected.
Blocked tear ducts happen most often in babies, though they may occur at any age. They affect about 6 out of 100 newborns.
Most of the time, blocked tear ducts in babies clear up on their own during the baby's first year. They usually have no effect on the baby's vision or cause any lasting eye problems.
What causes Tear Duct Blockage?
Causes of blocked tear ducts in children include:
Failure of the thin tissue at the end of the tear duct to open normally. This is the most common cause.
Abnormal growth of the nasal bone that puts pressure on a tear duct and closes it off.
Closed or undeveloped openings in the corners of the eyes where tears drain into the tear ducts.
Blocked tear ducts may run in families.
In adults, blocked tear ducts may be caused by an injury to the bones or tissues around the eyes or by another disorder, sometimes related to aging. For example, a blocked tear duct may result from a thickening of the tear duct lining, abnormal tissue or structures in the nose, or problems from surgery on or around the nose.
What are the symptoms of Tear Duct Blockage?
Symptoms often affect only one eye. They may include:
Heavy tearing. This may range from the eye looking wet to having tears run down the cheek.
A yellow or white buildup in the corner of the eye. The eyelids may stick together.
Redness and swelling around the eye or nose. This can be caused by infection in the eye's drainage system, such as dacryocystitis. In severe cases, infection can spread to the eyelids. A severe infection can cause fever, pain, increased redness and swelling, and mucus or pus in the eye.
Babies who have blocked tear ducts usually have symptoms within the first few days to the first few weeks after birth.
The symptoms of a blocked tear duct may get worse after an upper respiratory infection, such as a cold or sinus infection. Wind, cold, and sunlight also may make symptoms worse.